for further reading
A Companion to the Study of History by Michael Stanford, Blackwell, 1994, is a really helpful point of departure. Written in clear jargon-free prose with a wealth of illuminating examples, the author guides the reader through discussion and provides a wealth of insights. The same author’s The Nature of Historical Knowledge, Blackwell, 1986, covers similar ground but in a different form. In History: What and Why? Ancient, Modern and Postmodern Perspectives, Routledge, 1996, Beverley Southgate plots the direction of the discipline of History in a closely reasoned narrative and argues for a pluralistic future. Authur Marwick, The Nature of History, Macmillan, 1970 and later editions, fluently delivers a history of the discipline of History, the relationship with other disciplines and aspects of historical study. Philosophy of History by William H. Dray, Prentice-Hall Foundations of Philosophy series, 1964, is a short introduction to the speculative and critical philosophy of History.
Students who explore issues from the theory of History are likely to look at two edited collections of writings: Theories of History edited by Patrick Gardiner, The Free Press USA, 1959, and The Varieties of History. From Voltaire to the Present edited by Fritz Stern, Macmillan, 1956. Alban G. Widgery, Interpretations of History. Confucius to Toynbee, Greenwood Press USA, 1961, is a survey over a wider canvas. The Philosophy of History edited by Patrick Gardiner, Oxford - Readings in Philosophy series, 1974, is a collection of essays from the critical philosophy of History.
Individual statements which students are likely to find stimulating include The Hero in History by Sidney Hook, Beacon Press USA, 1955, in which the author engages in the debate on determinism and explores the role of particular individuals. Parts of The Idea of History, Oxford University Press, 1946, by R.G. Collingwood, encapsulate Collingwood’s ideas while Marc Bloch’s The Historian’s Craft, Manchester University Press, 1954, has many insights. H.R. Trevor Roper’s valedictory lecture as Regius Professor in the University of Oxford, History and Imagination, Clarendon Press, 1980, is an elegant invitation to view the past as it was.